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|Snow leopard - Panthera uncia|
|Tweet Topic Started: Mar 22 2012, 07:18 PM (8,362 Views)|
|Taipan||Mar 22 2012, 07:18 PM Post #1|
Snow leopard - Panthera uncia
Species: Panthera uncia
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia or Uncia uncia) is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia. The classification of this species has been subject to change and is still classified as Uncia uncia by MSW3 as of 2000 and CITES Appendix I. However with more recent genetic studies the snow leopard is now generally considered as Panthera uncia and classified as such by IUCN. Classically, two subspecies have been attributed however genetic differences between the two have not been settled. The snow leopard remains on the endangered species list classified as C1.
Snow leopards occupy alpine and subalpine areas generally 3,350 and 6,700 metres (10,990 and 22,000 ft) above sea level in Central Asia. The Snow Leopard Survival Strategy (McCarthy et al. 2003, Table II) compiled national snow leopard population estimates, updating the work of Fox (1994). Many of the estimates are acknowledged to be rough and out of date, but the total estimated population is 4,080-6,590. However, the global snow leopard effective population size (those likely to reproduce) is suspected to be fewer than 2,500 (50% of the total population, or 2,040-3,295).
Snow leopards are smaller than the other big cats but, like them, exhibit a range of sizes, generally weighing between 27 and 55 kg (60 and 120 lb), with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg (170 lb) and small female of under 25 kg (55 lb). Body length ranges from 75 to 130 centimetres (30 to 50 in), with the tail adding a further 80 to 100 cm (31 to 39 in) to that length. These cats stand about 60 cm (24 in) at the shoulder.
Snow leopards have long thick fur, and their base color varies from smoky gray to yellowish tan, with whitish underparts. They have dark gray to black open rosettes on their body with small spots of the same color on their heads and larger spots on their legs and tail. Unusually among cats, their eyes are pale green or gray in color.
Snow leopards show several adaptations for living in a cold mountainous environment. Their bodies are stocky, their fur is thick, and their ears are small and rounded, all of which help to minimize heat loss. Their paws are wide, which distributes their weight better for walking on snow, and have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and unstable surfaces; it also helps to minimize heat loss. Snow leopards' tails are long and flexible, helping them to maintain their balance, which is very important in the rocky terrain they inhabit. Their tails are also very thick due to storage of fats and are very thickly covered with fur which allows them to be used like a blanket to protect their faces when asleep.
The snow leopard has a short muzzle and domed forehead, containing unusual large nasal cavities that help the animal breathe the thin, cold air of their mountainous environment.
The snow leopard cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification of the hyoid bone. This partial ossification was previously thought to be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx, which are absent in the snow leopard. Snow leopard vocalizations include hisses, chuffing, mews, growls, and wailing.
Naming and etymology
Both the Latinised genus name, Uncia, and the occasional English name "ounce" are derived from the Old French once, originally used for the European lynx. "Once" itself is believed to have arisen by back-formation from an earlier word "lonce" – the "L" of "lonce" was construed as an abbreviated "le" ("the"), leaving "once" to be perceived as the animal's name. This, like the English version "ounce", became used for other lynx-sized cats, and eventually for the snow-leopard.
The snow leopard is also known in its native lands as shan (Ladakhi), irves (Mongolian: ирвэс), waawrin prraang (Pashto: واورين پړانګ), bars or barys (Kazakh: барыс [ˈbɑrəs]), ilbirs (Kyrgyz: Илбирс ) and barfani chita - "snow cheetah" (Urdu).
Taxonomy and evolution
The snow leopard was first described by Schreber in 1775, in the Kopet-Dag Mountains in Turkmenistan and Iran. In the past, many taxonomists included the snow leopard in the genus Panthera, together with the other largest extant felids, but later it was placed in its own genus, Uncia. It was thought not to be closely related to the Panthera or other extant big cats. However, recent molecular studies place the species firmly within the genus Panthera, its closest relative being the tiger (Panthera tigris). MSW3 still refers to the snow leopard as Uncia uncia but the more recent IUCN classifies it as Panthera uncia. The Cat Classification Task Force, with the goal to propose on behalf of the Cat Specialist Group and the IUCN Red List Unit, and based on the best science and expert knowledge presently available, is currently working on an updated and practical classification of the Felidae, including genera, species and subspecies with the most likely distribution ranges of the respective taxa .
A recent research paper in the Journal of Heredity reveals that there are three sub-species of snow leopard. Until now, researchers had assumed this species, Panthera uncia, was monotypic. Studying snow leopard scat from wildlife trails and marking sites revealed three primary genetic clusters, differentiated by geographical location: the Northern group, Panthera uncia irbis, found in the Altai region, the Central group, Panthera uncia uncioides, found in the core Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the Western group, Panthera uncia uncia, found in the Tian Shan, Pamir, and trans-Himalaya regions.
Biology and behavior
In summer, snow leopards usually live above the tree line on mountainous meadows and in rocky regions at an altitude from 2,700 to 6,000 m (8,900 to 20,000 ft). In winter, snow leopards come down into the forests to an altitude of around 1,200 to 2,000 m (3,900 to 6,600 ft). Snow leopards prefer broken terrain and can travel without difficulty in snow up to 85 centimetres (33 in) deep, although snow leopards prefer to use existing trails made by other animals.
The snow leopard leads a largely solitary life, although mothers may rear cubs in dens in the mountains for extended periods.
An individual snow leopard lives within a well-defined home range, but does not defend its territory aggressively when encroached upon by other snow leopards. Home ranges vary greatly in size. In Nepal, where prey is abundant, a home range may be as small as 12 km2 (5 sq mi) to 40 km2 (15 sq mi) and up to five to ten animals are found here per 100 km2 (40 sq mi); whereas in habitats with sparse prey, an area of 1,000 km2 (400 sq mi) supports only five of these cats.
Like other cats, snow leopards use scent marks to indicate their territory and common travel routes. These are most commonly produced by scraping the ground with the hind feet before depositing urine or scat, but they also spray urine onto sheltered patches of rock.
Snow leopards are crepuscular, being most active at dawn and dusk. They are known for being extremely secretive and well camouflaged.
Hunting and diet
Snow leopards are carnivores and actively hunt their prey, though, like many cats, they are opportunistic feeders, eating whatever meat they can find, including carrion and domestic livestock. They can kill animals three to four times their size, such as the Bharal, Himalayan Tahr, Markhor and Argali but will readily take much smaller prey such as hares and birds. They are capable of killing most animals in their range with the probable exception of the adult male Yak. Unusually among cats, snow leopards also eat a significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs.
The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time of year, and depends on prey availability. In the Himalayas, it preys mostly on bharals (Himalayan blue sheep) but in other mountain ranges such as the Karakoram, Tian Shan, and Altai, its main prey consists of Siberian ibex and argali, a type of wild sheep, although this has become rarer in some parts of the snow leopard's range. Other large animals eaten include various types of wild goats and sheep (such as markhors and urials), other goat-like ruminants such as Himalayan tahr and gorals, plus deer, boars, and langur monkeys. Smaller prey consists of marmots, woolly hares, pikas, various rodents, and birds such as the snow cock and chukar.
Considerable predation of domestic livestock occurs which brings it into direct conflict with humans. Herders will kill snow leopards to prevent them from taking their animals. The loss of prey animals due to over grazing by domestic livestock, poaching and defense of livestock are the major drivers for the decreasing population of Panthera uncia. Snow leopards have not been reported to attack humans, and appear to be among the least aggressive of all the big cats. As a result, they are easily driven away from livestock; they readily abandon their kills when threatened and may not even defend themselves when attacked.
Snow leopards prefer to ambush prey from above, using broken terrain to conceal their approach, and can leap as far as 14 meters (46 ft). They will actively pursue prey down steep mountainsides, using the momentum of their initial leap to chase animals for up to 300 metres (980 ft). They kill with a bite to the neck, and may drag the prey to a safe location before feeding. They consume all edible parts of the carcass, and can survive on a single bharal for two weeks before hunting again. Annual prey needs appears to be 20-30 adult blue sheep.
Reproduction and life cycle
Snow leopards are unusual among large cats in that they have a well-defined birth peak. They usually mate in late winter, marked by a noticeable increase in marking and calling. The Snow Leopards have a gestation period of 90–100 days, so that the cubs are born between April and June. Oestrus typically lasts from five to eight days, and males tend not to seek out another partner after mating, probably because the short mating season does not allow sufficient time. Paired snow leopards mate in the usual felid posture, from 12 to 36 times a day.
The mother gives birth in a rocky den or crevice lined with fur shed from her underside. Litter sizes vary from one to five cubs, but the average is 2.2. The cubs are blind and helpless at birth, although already with a thick coat of fur, and weigh from 320 to 567 grams (11 to 20.0 oz). The eyes open at around seven days, and the cubs can walk at five weeks and are fully weaned by 10 weeks. Also when they are born they have full black spots and turn into rosettes as they grow up.
The cubs leave the den at around two to four months of age, but remain with their mother until they become independent after around 18–22 months. Once independent, they may disperse over considerable distances, even crossing wide expanses of flat terrain to seek out new hunting grounds. This likely helps reduce the inbreeding that would otherwise be common in their relatively isolated environment. Snow leopards become sexually mature at two to three years, and normally live for 15–18 years, although in captivity they can live for up to 21 years.
The snow leopard is currently restricted to central Asia in Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
Its geographic distribution runs from the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan and the Syr Darya through the mountains of Pamir Mountains, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kunlun, and the Himalaya to southern Siberia, where the range covers the Russian Altai mountains, Sayan, Tannu-Ola mountains and the mountains to the west of Lake Baikal. In Mongolia, it is found in the Mongolian and Gobi Altai and the Khangai Mountains. In Tibet it is found up to the Altyn-Tagh in the north.
There are numerous agencies working to conserve the snow leopard and its threatened mountain ecosystems. These include the Snow Leopard Trust, the Snow Leopard Conservancy, the Snow Leopard Network, the Cat Specialist Group and the Panthera Corporation. These groups and numerous national governments from the snow leopard’s range, non-profits and donors from around the world recently worked together at the 10th International Snow Leopard Conference in Beijing. Their focus on research, community programs in snow leopard regions and education programs are aimed at understanding the cat's needs as well as the needs of the villagers and herder communities affecting snow leopards' lives and habitat.
Population and protected areas
The total wild population of the snow leopard was estimated at only 4,080 to 6,590 individuals by McCarthy, et al., 2003 (see table below). Many of these estimates are rough and outdated.
In 1972, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) placed the snow leopard on its Red List of Threatened Species as globally "Endangered"; the same threat category was applied in the assessment conducted in 2008.
There are also 600-700 snow leopards in zoos around the world.
Much progress has been made in securing the survival of the Snow Leopard, with Snow Leopards being successfully bred in captivity. The animals usually give birth to two to three cubs in a litter, but can give birth to up to seven in some cases.
A "surprisingly healthy" population of Snow Leopards has been found living at 16 locations in the isolated Wakhan Corridor in northeastern Afghanistan giving rise to hopes for survival of wild Snow Leopards in that region.
Edited by Taipan, May 14 2017, 10:52 AM.
|Taipan||Apr 20 2012, 02:43 PM Post #2|
Snow Leopard Jaws & Teeth
The yak population in Mongolia and its relation with snow leopards as a prey species
B. Lhagvasuren and B. Munkhtsog
Institute of Biological Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 415, Ulaanbaatar-38, Mongolia
There are currently about 1000 snow leopards in Mongolia with an overall density of 1.10 cats per 100 km2 of occupied habitat. These cats occupy an area range of probably less than 90 thousand km2. The snow leopards commonly use terrain that is extremely rugged, in the same habitat where yak graze and often unguarded. Consequently, they, along with horses, are often killed by snow leopard, more so than other large livestock. During our study, 168 faecal samples of the snow leopard were collected and analysed. Results show that ibex made up 38.7% of the total diet, small mammals 4.6%, red deer 2.4%, marmot 7.1%, and domestic livestock 31% (including sheep 17.3%, horse 5.4%, cow 4.8%, and goat 3.6%). In addition to prey, vegetation (14.9%) and soil (2.3%) were also found in the faecal samples.
In this study, we found ibex to be one of the main prey species of the snow leopard. The study areas at Uvs and South Gobi, which have been protected since 1970, have very good populations of ibex in pasture areas not used for grazing. When the results of this study, conducted in areas where wildlife are adequately protected, are compared to studies conducted in areas with more livestock occupied areas, the snow leopard diet analyses show that wild prey species make up more of the snow leopard's diet than domestic livestock in protected areas. Possible explanations for this may be either that livestock have replaced wild prey in some pasturelands or that livestock are simply easier to kill than their wild counterparts, or perhaps both.
The percentage of goat in the snow leopard diet in Uvs, and even into the Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, is small compared to the results of previous research in other areas due to small herd sizes. In a study conducted by Bold and Dorjzunduy (1976), domestic goats accounted for 82.4% of total livestock predated by cats. Amgalanbaatar et al. (1999) did a similar study in the Tost and Nemegt mountains. In the past 20 years, predation on domestic goats by snow leopards has increased up to 87.8% because of a rapid increase in the goat population in response to demand for cashmere. However, in our study area, wildlife are well protected and goat populations are relatively small, thus the percentage of domestic goat in the snow leopard diet is reduced. This study suggests if wild prey populations are viable, herders may not need to worry so much about their animals. Another important food item found in this study was small mammals, most likely because we collected the faeces mostly in the summer and autumn seasons.
The snow leopard diet differs by region depending on the potential prey species and fauna in the regions. In the Yamaat valley of Turgen, which is strictly protected and contains an important red deer population, snow leopards usually locate along the forest borders and feed on the red deer. In the South Gobi, such as in Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, if the summer is hot and dry and goitered gazelles migrate up to the mountains looking for water resources and good grazing, they can be attacked by cats.
Snow leopards often kill horse and yak, which herders do not guard. As they are also farther ranging than other livestock, their pasture may also overlap with snow leopard habitat. In this study, yak remains were not found in the faecal samples and horse remains were significantly less than what we expected. The reason for this could be that the study areas are strictly protected and the number of domestic animals pastured there are few. Another reason could be that in these areas the populations of wild prey species, such as ibex, small mammals and hare, are sufficient and thus easier prey for the snow leopard than either horse or yak.
Vegetation remains were found in many of the samples, especially in those collected in areas of more grassy terrain such as in the Turgen Mountains, as opposed to those collected in the barren terrain in the South Gobi. Conversely, more soil was found in the South Gobi samples than those from Uvs. Most likely the animals are ingesting vegetation and soil while eating prey.
A Beautiful Cat
Wild snow leopard captured after killing 50 sheep
A wild snow leopard that killed 50 sheep has been captured and put in a zoo in northwest China's Qinghai Province.
The big cat haunted the Qijia village, Gonghe county of the province, and attacked the sheep before angry villagers finally decided to hunt it.
They chased the leopard on motorcycles and roped the beast after lengthy fight.
When villagers were told that the wild snow leopard they had snared was under first class protection along with the panda, they decided to hand it to the Xining Zoo in the capital city of the province rather than kill it.
"The animal, aged five or six, was caught alive by the villagers only because it had been without food for several days and was weak," said Xu Shuren, head of the zoo and expert on wild animal protection.
There are believed to be between 5,000 and 7,500 snow leopards left in the wild and around 500 in captivity, mainly in Asia.
Qinghai had an estimated 900 to 1,200 wild snow leopards, Xu said.
The demand for snow leopard pelts in some countries had led to a great drop their numbers.
(Xinhua News Agency December 13, 2007)
Insuring the Future of the Snow Leopard
In the trackless wilds of the Himalaya, an ecologist is using insurance to save one of the world’s most threatened animals from extinction.
Shepherds in the Himalayan Mountains of Baltistan, in northern Pakistan, have long hated the snow leopard. Half the Balti economy comes from domesticated goats that are preyed upon by the snow leopard, largely because its traditional wild food – the ibex and markhor –have been hunted to near extinction. So local herders do not hesitate to kill the snow leopard, which is also threatened by the illegal trade in its highly-prized pelt.
Project Snow Leopard
Yale University researcher Shafqat Hussain, who originally trained as an economist, created Project Snow Leopard (PSL) in 1998 to save the snow leopard in Baltistan. This non-profit conservation programme combines ecotourism and low-cost insurance, protecting herders against attacks by the leopards on their livestock. The plan is helping local people realize that one cat alive in the surrounding bush is worth more to them than several killed for the fur trade. Hussain has been made an Associate Laureate in the Rolex Awards for Enterprise for his plan.
Hussain, who describes the snow leopard as ‘a marvel of nature’s perfection’, explains that, sitting at the top of the food chain, this animal plays a key role in maintaining the mountain ecosystem. Dr Ma Ming, of the Snow Leopard Trust in Xinjiang, China, calls it an ‘umbrella species’: protecting it ensures its habitat and many other local species are also preserved.
Wonderfully adapted for the extreme weather and rocky terrain, the snow leopard roams wild at altitudes up to 5,500 metres in the Himalayan peaks. Furry feet help it stay on top of the snow by acting as natural snowshoes. This rare creature hunts alone for wild and domesticated goats and other prey, which it pounces upon from up to 15 metres away. With a total population estimated at between 4,000 and 7,000 scattered across the Himalayas, including fewer than 150 in Baltistan, the snow leopard is listed as ‘endangered’ on the IUCN (the World Conservation Union) Red List of Threatened Animals.
This elusive relative of the tiger and more familiar African leopard is one of the least photographed, but most photogenic of big cats, with its metre-long tail and handsome dappled coat.
Snow Leopard Insurance
The insurance scheme set up by Hussain compensates villagers for every goat killed by the predators, which effectively deters the villagers from killing the offending cat or any other suspect. The annual premium paid is one per cent of the value of one goat, with each herder paying according to the number of goats he owns. This covers about half of all claims. The other half comes from Full Moon Night Trekking, the ecotourism agency Hussain founded, which advertises the snow leopard as its chief attraction.
Great video footage of Snow Leopards, and an impressive chase and attack on a Mountain Goat :
Snow Leopard Camera Trap Photos
Stalking India's Hemis National Park, a snow leopard lives up to its name in U.S. photographer Steve Winter's award-winning National Geographic magazine image.
On October 30, 2008, "Snowstorm Leopard" was named best overall photo in the 2008 Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition, which is organized by the Natural History of London and BBC Wildlife Magazine.
"This is the hardest story I have ever done because of the altitude and the steepness of the mountains," the U.S. photographer told National Geographic. "At night it was 30 below zero [Fahrenheit]."
Over ten months Winter's 14 "camera traps" shot more than 30,000 frames in pursuit of the endangered cat.
As few as 3,500 snow leopards remain in the wild.
Snow Leopard Population Discovered in Afghanistan
ScienceDaily (July 13, 2011) — The Wildlife Conservation Society has discovered a surprisingly healthy population of rare snow leopards living in the mountainous reaches of northeastern Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor, according to a new study.
The discovery gives hope to the world's most elusive big cat, which calls home to some of the world's tallest mountains. Between 4,500 and 7,500 snow leopards remain in the wild scattered across a dozen countries in Central Asia.
The study, which appears in the June 29th issue of the International Journal of Environmental Studies, is by WCS conservationists Anthony Simms, Zalmai Moheb, Salahudin, Hussain Ali, Inayat Ali and Timothy Wood.
WCS-trained community rangers used camera traps to document the presence of snow leopards at 16 different locations across a wide landscape. The images represent the first camera trap records of snow leopards in Afghanistan. WCS has been conserving wildlife and improving local livelihoods in the region since 2006 with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
"This is a wonderful discovery -- it shows that there is real hope for snow leopards in Afghanistan," said Peter Zahler, WCS Deputy Director for Asia Programs. "Now our goal is to ensure that these magnificent animals have a secure future as a key part of Afghanistan's natural heritage."
According to the study, snow leopards remain threatened in the region. Poaching for their pelts, persecution by shepherds, and the capture of live animals for the illegal pet trade have all been documented in the Wakhan Corridor. In response, WCS has developed a set of conservation initiatives to protect snow leopards. These include partnering with local communities, training of rangers, and education and outreach efforts.
Anthony Simms, lead author and the project's Technical Advisor, said, "By developing a community-led management approach, we believe snow leopards will be conserved in Afghanistan over the long term."
WCS-led initiatives are already paying off. Conservation education is now occurring in every school in the Wakhan region. Fifty-nine rangers have been trained to date. They monitor not only snow leopards but other species including Marco Polo sheep and ibex while also enforcing laws against poaching. WCS has also initiated the construction of predator-proof livestock corrals and a livestock insurance program that compensates shepherds, though initial WCS research shows that surprisingly few livestock fall to predators in the region.
In Afghanistan, USAID has provided support to WCS to work in more than 55 communities across the country and is training local people to monitor and sustainably manage their wildlife and other resources. One of the many outputs of this project was the creation of Afghanistan's first national park -- Band-e-Amir -- which is now co-managed by the government and a committee consisting of all 14 communities living around the park.
Snow leopards have declined by as much as 20 percent over the past 16 years and are considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
This is a snow leopard captured by remote camera in Afghanistan. A team of researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society have discovered a surprisingly healthy population of these elusive big cats.
Anthony Simms, Zalmai Moheb, Salahudin, Hussain Ali, Inayat Ali, Timothy Wood. Saving threatened species in Afghanistan: snow leopards in the Wakhan Corridor. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 2011; 68 (3): 299 DOI: [url]10.1080/00207233.2011.577147[/url]
|Taipan||Jul 13 2012, 11:05 PM Post #3|
First Ever Videos of Snow Leopard Mother and Cubs in Dens Recorded in Mongolia
ScienceDaily (July 12, 2012) — For the first time, the den sites of two female snow leopards and their cubs have been located in Mongolia's Tost Mountains, with the first known videos taken of a mother and cubs, located and recorded by scientists from Panthera, a wild cat conservation organization, and the Snow Leopard Trust (SLT).
Because of the snow leopard's secretive and elusive nature, coupled with the extreme and treacherous landscape which they inhabit, dens have been extremely difficult to locate. This is a tremendous discovery and provides invaluable insight into the life story of the snow leopard.
Dr. Tom McCarthy, Executive Director of Panthera's Snow Leopard Program stated, "We have spent years trying to determine when and where snow leopards give birth, the size of their litters, and the chances a cub has of surviving into adulthood. This is one of those exceptional moments in conservation where after years of effort, we get a rare glimpse into the life of an animal that needs our help in surviving in today's world. These data will help ensure a future for these incredible animals."
A short video of the female and her cub who were bedded down in a partially human-made den was recorded from a safe distance by Örjan Johansson, Panthera's Snow Leopard Field Scientist and Ph.D. student, using a camera fixed to an extended pole.
The team, which included a veterinarian, entered the two dens (the first with two cubs, and the second containing one cub) while the mothers were away hunting. All three cubs were carefully weighed, measured, photographed and other details were recorded. Two of the cubs were fixed with tiny microchip ID tags (the size of a grain of rice) which were placed under their skin for future identification. The utmost care was taken in handling the animals to ensure they were not endangered, which was the top priority of the team at all times. In the following days, the team monitored the mothers' locations to ensure that they returned to their dens and their cubs, which they successfully did.
"Knowledge about the first days and weeks of life is vital to our understanding of how big cat populations work, and how likely it is for a newborn to reach adulthood and contribute to a healthy population. A valid conservation program requires such information, which this new development in snow leopard research provides," said Dr. Howard Quigley, Panthera's Executive Director of both Jaguar and Cougar Programs.
Referred to by locals as 'Asia's Mountain Ghost,' knowledge of snow leopards in general is quite limited due to the cat's elusive nature, and even less is known about rearing cubs and cub survival in the wild. Until now, what is known has mostly been learned from studying snow leopards in zoos. Although snow leopard litters typically consist of one to three cubs in a captive zoo environment, no information exists regarding litter size in the wild. As wild snow leopard cubs are subject to natural predators, disease, and also human threats such as poaching or capture for the illegal wildlife market, the percentage of cubs which survive to adulthood has until now only been speculated.
The use of PIT tags and observations of snow leopard rearing in the wild will allow our scientists to learn about the characteristics of a typical natal den and speculate how a den is selected, how long snow leopard cubs remain in dens, when cubs begin to follow their mothers outside of the dens, how often and how long the mother leaves the cubs alone to hunt, how many cubs are typically born in the wild, and other valuable data.
All of these data and more, gathered through camera-trapping and GPS collaring, help to inform effective conservation initiatives undertaken by Panthera across the snow leopard's range.
This is a snow leopard mother and cub in a den in Mongolia.
|Taipan||Oct 10 2012, 01:19 PM Post #4|
Snow Leopards in Pakistan No Longer Wild, Expert Says
By eating mostly livestock, rare cat now dependent on people.
A snow leopard in Pakistan's Chitral region.
Photograph by George B. Schaller, National Geographic
National Geographic News
Published October 9, 2012
The snow leopard in Pakistan is an endangered species. The population of the rarely seen big cat has likely fallen to fewer than 450 in the country, mainly due to hunting. Now an expert has come up with an unconventional—and controversial—proposal to save the snow leopard: Classify it as a domesticated animal.
That doesn't mean that snow leopards are literally tame, like a chicken, explained Shafqat Hussain, a National Geographic Emerging Explorer who spoke during the National Geographic Explorers Symposium in Washington, D.C., in June: "When I say that snow leopards are like domestic cats, I mean it rhetorically to make contrast with the word wild."
His idea stems from the changing relationship between snow leopards and humans. Where the cats do remain in the Himalaya, they increasingly share their habitat with mountain herders. A 2010 study of snow leopard scat found that up to 70 percent of the species' diet in the Gilgit Baltistan Province (map) comes from sheep, cattle, and other domestic animals. Some herders have killed snow leopards in retaliation for preying on their livestock.
Given the snow leopards' diet, "how do we see these mythical, elusive wild animals? Are they really wild in the sense that of meaning we attach to the word wild—existing on its own, having no connection with society and domestic economy?" Hussain said.
So the way to enable snow leopards to survive, says Hussain, is not to create protected areas that sequester them from local communities. That solution often alienates farmers, who lose their grazing areas as a result. He would suggest supporting local herders instead so they can make a living despite snow leopard incursions.
And that's exactly what he's been doing for more than a decade. In 1999 Hussain founded the Snow Leopard Project, an insurance scheme that compensates local people in snow leopard-range countries if their livestock are killed by the predators.
Various branches of the successful project, which is jointly managed by project officials and a committee of villagers, have spread to 400 households covering 3,000 animals across central Asia.
Since 1998, close to U.S. $7,000 has been paid out in compensation for lost animals, and $13,000 invested on improving livestock corrals and other infrastructure. Meanwhile, the snow leopard population seems to have remained stable, if not grown, Hussain said.
Snow Leopard Perspective Controversial
Not everyone agrees. In fact, there is great consternation in the big-cat conservation community about Hussain's ideas, particularly that conservation groups don't work with locals.
Tom McCarthy, executive director of the Snow Leopard Program for the big-cat conservation group Panthera, said that he doesn't "know a single conservation [nongovernmental organization] working on snow leopards today that would support setting up reserves for the cats at the expense of local people."
For example, before Hussain set up the Snow Leopard Project, McCarthy and colleagues founded the award-winning Snow Leopard Enterprises, which helps local people in snow leopard countries generate income.
Conservation biologist and snow leopard expert Jerry Roe also said by email that relabeling the snow leopard as domestic will not resolve the conflict between snow leopards and herders or benefit the species.
For one, "a change of definition will not alter the perspective of snow leopards as a pest species in the eyes of herders," said Roe, co-founder of California-based Nomad Ecology, an ecological consulting and research company.
Living With Snow Leopards
Hussain thinks the objections are just not valid. Local people—at least in Pakistan—do not have an "atavistic enmity to snow leopards, [nor] this itch to kill it," he said. "If they get compensated for their losses, they have no interest in eliminating this animal."
Such is the case with Mohammed Ibrahim, chairman of Skoyo Krabathang Basingo Conservation and Development Organization in Krabathang, Pakistan (map), who also owns 15 goats. In a phone interview with an Urdu interpreter, Ibrahim said that he's not worried about snow leopards, mostly because of insurance schemes such as Project Snow Leopard that compensate herders for lost animals.
And since snow leopards have never been known to attack people, Hussain is confident that his scheme would work far better than a conservation policy that separates the leopards from the locals: "The idea of co-existing with snow leopards is easy to implement if you satisfy the villagers."
Ultimately, conservationists share the same goal: Ensuring that the snow leopard—what Hussain calls a "symbol of the high mountains"—can survive. Whether that will continue to be an animal dependent on people for food, though, is still up in the air.
|Taipan||Jul 24 2013, 04:57 PM Post #5|
Cashmere trade threat to snow leopards
By Melissa Hogenboom
Science reporter, BBC News
23 July 2013 Last updated at 13:46 GMT
Snow leopards are critically endangered as their natural prey has declined
The global demand for cashmere is threatening endangered snow leopards, according to a new report.
Domestic cashmere goats in parts of Central Asia have almost tripled in the last 20 years to fuel cashmere demand.
The goats are encroaching on the natural habitats of the snow leopard and their natural prey.
The authors of the paper, published in Conservation Biology, say that other endangered animals are also at risk.
These include herbivores which compete for the same resources as the goats, such as the antelope Saiga tatarica, the Tibetan chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii) and the Himalayan bharal (Pseudois nayaur) also known as the blue sheep.
As the snow leopards' habitats converge with domestic goats, the decline wild prey can increasingly lead the leopards to hunt the goats.
Consequently there has now been an observed increase in "retaliatory killings" of snow leopards by humans protecting their herds, report the authors.
In Mongolia alone, numbers of domestic goats have grown from about from five million in 1990 to close to 14 million in 2010. Farmers in India and China's Tibetan Plateau also herd goats for cashmere.
Charudutt Mishra of the Snow Leopard Trust and one of the co-authors of the paper, said cashmere "is an important source of livelihood" for local communities in many parts of Central Asia.
"Cashmere production is a complicated human issue. Understandably, indigenous herders are trying to improve their livelihoods, but the short-term economic gain is harming the local ecosystem.
"By improving our understanding of the relationship between indigenous herders, local ecology and global markets, we can implement policies at the national and international level which are better designed to protect biodiversity while supporting the livelihoods of local communities."
Dr Mischra, who received funding for his work from the Whitley Award for nature conservation, told BBC News that while cashmere production was not new, the global market for it had dramatically increased over the past 20 years.
He said "green labelling" of cashmere clothes could help bring awareness to the issue.
"One of the intentions is to bring together some of the local communities who produce cashmere and the buyers from the international market.
"We want to address everyone's concerns and develop a programme where we can make grazing more sustainable, and that allows for wild and domestic animals to co-exist."
|Taipan||Sep 18 2013, 05:29 PM Post #6|
Evolution of a Predator: How Big Cats Became Carnivores
By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer | September 17, 2013 11:00am ET
The Siberian tiger, also known as Panthera tigris altaica
The biggest and perhaps most fearsome of the world's big cats, the tiger shares 95.6 percent of its DNA with humans' cute and furry companions, domestic cats.
That's one of the findings from the newly sequenced genomes of tigers, snow leopards and lions.
The new research showed that big cats have genetic mutations that enabled them to be carnivores. The team also identified mutations that allow snow leopards to thrive at high altitudes.
The findings, detailed today (Sept. 17) in the journal Nature Communications, could help conservation efforts by preventing closely related captive animals from breeding, said Jong Bhak, a geneticist at the Personal Genomics Institute in South Korea.
Lions and tigers
Tigers are the biggest members of the cat family and are closely related to other big cats, such as snow leopards and lions. The predatory felines are critically endangered, and only 3,050 to 3,950 tigers are thought to remain in the wild. Without tiger conservation, most scientists believe the iconic orange cats will eventually go extinct.
To aid those efforts, Bhak and his colleagues sequenced the genome of a 9-year-old Amur tiger living in the Everland Zoo in South Korea. The team also acquired DNA from around the world and compared the Amur tiger genome with that of the white Bengal tiger, the African lion, the white African lion and the snow leopard.
The tiger shares 95.6 percent of its genome with the domestic cat, from which it diverged about 10.8 million years ago, the comparison showed.
In addition, several genes were altered in metabolic pathways associated with protein digestion and metabolism, or how the body uses fuel like food to power cells. Those changes, which evolved over tens of millions of years, likely enable the majestic felines to digest and rely solely on meat, Bhak said.
Big cats also have several mutations that make for powerful, fast-acting muscles — a necessity when chasing down prey.
The team also found two genes in the snow leopard that allow it to thrive in the low-oxygen conditions of its high-altitude habitat in the Himalayan Mountains. Those genetic changes are similar to ones found in the naked mole rat, which also lives in low-oxygen conditions, though underground. In addition, the genetic analysis identified the mutations that give Bengal tigers and white African lions their distinctive white coats, Bhak said.
The new results could aid conservation efforts by giving scientists a tool to estimate genetic diversity in the wild.
By sequencing the genomes of tigers and other endangered cats like snow leopards, "we can find whether they are inbreeding," Bhak told LiveScience. "If their population diversity is very low, then one flu virus can kill a lot of them quickly, because they have the same genetic makeup."
Scientists can then take measures to introduce fresh blood into the population, which could make it more resilient.
The genomes can also aid captive breeding programs by helping zoos choose animals that aren't closely related for mating, he added.
The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes
Yun Sung Cho, Li Hu, Haolong Hou, Hang Lee, Jiaohui Xu, Soowhan Kwon, Sukhun Oh, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Sangsoo Kim, Young-Ah Shin, Byung Chul Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Chang-uk Kim, Shu-Jin Luo, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Anne Schmidt-Küntzel, Jason A. Turner, Laurie Marker et al.
Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2433 doi:10.1038/ncomms3433
Received 02 May 2013 Accepted 13 August 2013 Published 17 September 2013
Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species.
(a) Orthologous gene clusters in mammalian species. The Venn diagram shows the number of unique and shared gene families among seven mammalian genomes. (b) Gene expansion or contraction in the tiger genome. Numbers designate the number of gene families that have expanded (green, +) and contracted (red, −) after the split from the common ancestor. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) has 17,841 gene families. The time lines indicate divergence times among the species.
|Taipan||Dec 19 2013, 11:41 AM Post #7|
Snow Leopard Collared for First Time in Nepal
By Megan Gannon, News Editor | December 18, 2013 03:40pm ET
In a first for Nepal, scientists captured and collared an elusive snow leopard to track the movements of the endangered cat. This male snow leopard was captured using a foothold snare. Conservationists say it was not harmed during the capture on Nov. 25, 2013.
Scientists outfitted an elusive snow leopard with a GPS collar in Nepal, a first for the Himalayan country, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) announced today.
By tracking the movements of the spotted cat, conservationists hope to learn more about the ecology and behavior of the species to make better decisions about protecting the endangered animals.
The 5-year-old male snow leopard was captured in a snare in eastern Nepal's Kangchenjunga Conservation Area on Nov. 25, 2013. Named "Ghanjenzunga" after a local deity, the cat weighs 88 lbs. (40 kilograms) and measures 6.3 feet (193 centimeters) from the base of its head to the base of its tail. After being sedated, the cat was fitted with a GPS Plus Globalstar collar and released back into the wild.
Ghanjenzunga will wear the collar until the end of 2015, WWF officials said. The satellite tech will allow scientists to track which habitats the cat prefers and which corridors it uses to get to those places.
"Snow leopards are highly elusive creatures and given the terrains they reside in, monitoring work on the species is a highly challenging task," Narendra Man Babu Pradhan, who is coordinator for development, research and monitoring at WWF Nepal, said in a statement. "While past studies on the snow leopard have been limited to areas that are accessible to people, this technology will help provide important information on the ecology and behavior of the wide ranging snow leopard."
While the cats had been tracked with VHF radio collars in the early 1980s and '90s, this is the first time satellite-GPS technology is being used to track snow leopards in Nepal, according to WWF officials. Last year, scientists outfitted two male snow leopards with GPS collars for the first time in Afghanistan.
Snow leopards roam through rugged mountain regions across 12 Asian nations and their numbers have been shrinking. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), often considered the world's main authority on the conservation status of animals, lists the snow leopard as an endangered species and estimates that its total population in the wild is 4,080 to 6,590.
|Taipan||Dec 28 2013, 02:19 PM Post #8|
Images of Snow Leopard Cubs in Siberia Suggest Species Rebound
By James A. Foley Dec 27, 2013 01:54 PM EST
A new series of photos featuring two snow leopard cubs frolicking in the Siberian wilderness is evidence that populations are rebounding, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
In the 1990s the population of snow leopards in Siberia was almost completely decimated, but a new series of photos featuring two snow leopard cubs frolicking in the Siberian wilderness is evidence that populations are rebounding, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
Camera traps set up along the Argut River Valley in eastern Russia spotted the playful pair of cubs. The traps were financed by the WWF and operated by the the Altai Project, WWF-Russia and Snow Leopard Conservancy.
"These photos are the evidence of the effectiveness of our work in Altai, the snow leopards are breeding," Sergei Spitsyn, from the Altaiskiy State Nature Reserve, told the WWF.
Evidence from other studies in the area has led researchers to believe that there are as many as eight snow leopards living inhabiting the Argut River Valley.
The cubs filmed by the camera traps are thought to be less than one year old.
The WWF said the cubs "are significant as they indicate that the population of snow leopards in the Argut Valley can be restored."
The conservation organizations enlisted the help of an ex-poacher, who treks to the camera traps to collect the data and checks the area for snares and other animal traps.
Globally, snow leopards number about 6,000 in the wild across 12 countries, but their number is declining overall, the WWF said. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List puts the snow leopard as a globally endangered species.
|Taipan||Jan 18 2014, 02:00 PM Post #9|
Snow Leopards Photographed for the 1st Time in Uzbekistan
By Megan Gannon, News Editor | January 16, 2014 11:07am ET
A snow leopard photographed during a November/December 2013 camera trap survey in Uzbekistan.
Credit: ©Y. Protas/Panthera/WWF Central Asia Program/Uzbek Biocontrol Agency/Gissar Nature Reserve
A camera trap snapped the first-ever pictures of the elusive snow leopard in Uzbekistan. Even better, it caught not one, but two of the endangered cats on camera.
The new images of the cats released by conservation groups Panthera and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) confirm that there are at least two individual snow leopards in the Gissar Nature Reserve, a protected part of the Pamir Mountains that can be visited only for scientific research.
Uzbekistan, which is about the size of California, is one of 12 countries in Asia where snow leopards still roam through rugged mountainous terrain. It's estimated that only 3,500 to 7,000 of the endangered cats are left in the wild.
Two snow leopards spotted in the Gissar Nature Reserve in 2013.
Credit: ©Y. Protas/Panthera/WWF Central Asia Program/Uzbek Biocontrol Agency/Gissar Nature Reserve
Because of their scarcity and elusive nature, snow leopards are rarely photographed. In Uzbekistan, the cats had previously been confirmed only through traditional surveys and rare sightings.
Rangers and biologists collaborating with Panthera and WWF set up the camera trap in Uzbekistan between November and December 2013 to look for snow leopards. Other animals including bears, lynxes, ibexes, wild boars and hares were also caught on camera during the study.
"Panthera has provided over 300 camera traps through partnerships such as this to better document the range of this elusive and endangered cat of central Asia's mountains," Tom McCarthy, executive director of Panthera's snow leopard program, said in a statement. "With an improved understanding of their range and numbers we have a better chance to save them."
Camera traps have allowed researchers to get photos of the cats in their natural habitats from Tajikistan to Siberia. Beyond hidden cameras, conservationists have turned to other technology to track the secretive cats. In November, a 5-year-old snow leopard was outfitted with a GPS collar in Nepal, a first for the country.
|Taipan||Jan 27 2014, 11:29 AM Post #10|
Rare Pictures: Snow Leopards Caught in Camera Trap
Endangered big cats photographed in northern Pakistan.
PUBLISHED JANUARY 25, 2014
The cat's out of the bag—or, should we say, the mountains.
Notoriously elusive snow leopards have been caught by a camera trap in northern Pakistan as part of a three-year study by scientists with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The main collaborator in the study is the Snow Leopard Foundation Pakistan.
With only half a year left to complete their study, the scientists published a report on their use of camera traps in the journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution.
Snow leopards (Panthera uncia), which live in the snow-capped mountains of Central Asia, are known as "gray ghosts" or "ghost cats" because they frequently hide from people and other animals.
But researcher Richard Bischof is hoping to shed more light on the shy beast by leading a non-invasive study of snow leopards using scat analysis and photography.
"You can garner lots of information from these images, including insights into distribution and behavior, etc.," Bischof said.
Unique coat patterns of the spotted cats also allows the identification of individuals and aid estimation of population size.
There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,500 snow leopards in the wild, and the species is listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
That's why big cat conservationists are studying the leopards in an effort to learn more about them and keep them from going extinct.
Cats on Camera
Photographing snow leopards has a storied history: In November 1971, National Geographic magazine published the first ever pictures of snow leopards in the wild—photographed also in Pakistan.
The article, called "Imperiled Phantoms of Asian Peaks," followed well-known zoologist and photographer George Schaller in his pursuit to photograph the legendary cat.
More than 40 years later, it's not much easier to capture the cats on camera.
"We are working in very remote areas, at high elevation, and in rough terrain. This brings along a lot of challenges but also makes our work a fantastic adventure. Non-invasive methods such as camera traps and scat-based DNA analysis allow us to study this secretive carnivores in their mountain environment," Bischof said.
The project would not be possible without the support from local communities, wildlife agencies, and conservation organizations.
"Most importantly, I am working with a skilled team of Pakistani biologists, which are now experts at camera trapping carnivores."
The team has learned that if they place the cameras in random locations, they have a poor chance of getting snow leopards on camera.
"Once we detect sign of carnivores, such as tracks, we'll study the local area in an attempt to maximize our chance of photographically capturing the animals," he said.
The team has been placing cameras in the pathways of traveling snow leopards, which is how they got these amazing photos.
"We use digital cameras with a motion sensor and an infrared flash to take photos both during the day and at night. Often people that use camera traps can set [them] in trees. We don't have any trees at high elevation. So we use steel poles and attach the cameras to them."
The snow leopard shown in the series of photos "saw the pole with the camera and walked right up to it, looked into the camera, and then walked past it."
Bischof's team has also been collecting snow leopards scat for DNA analysis. The data will reveal more about the status and ecology of carnivores in their study region.
"Admittedly, a photo of snow leopard is more glorious than a piece of scat. However, genetic methods allow us to extract a lot of information from scats, including the species and the sex of the animal, its individual identity, and even its diet. Combining camera trapping and genetic sampling will give us a more comprehensive picture of carnivore ecology in our study area."
"Camera trap photos of wildlife capture people's imagination. That in itself is valuable, as it can help raise awareness. For wildlife ecologists, camera traps and other non-invasive methods are a valuable source of data that can help us learn about the ecology, and ultimately better conserve, secretive wild species."
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